Resources and Tools for Elementary Math Specialists and Teachers
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Levels of Justification

This professional development video (video 2) from Minnesota Math and Science Teacher Academy Center in Region 11 presents an algebra training session on justification. Viewers watch Dr. Terry Wyberg discuss opportunities to focus on what constitutes an appropriate level of justification for students through a discussion of the conjecture: An odd number plus an odd number is always an even number. Dr. Wyberg presents the need for teachers to extend their students' levels of justification from appeal to authority ("My teacher told me!") to using an illustrative example where words, symbols or diagrams explain their thinking; the teacher helps student pull out a generalized argument or proof. The math education textbook: “Thinking Mathematically: Integrating Arithmetic and Algebra in the Elementary School" is referenced in this video.
Contributed by: Normandale Community College - Publisher, Minnesota Math and Science Teacher Training Academy - Initiator
This resource is included in the following PD Collection(s):
CCSS Practice Standard 3This collection assists teachers as they integrate Mathematical Practice Standard 3 into their classroom routines. Encouraging productive student conversations about mathematics builds the foundation that supports this practice. These resources will help teachers learn methods for creating an environment where constructing arguments and critiquing the reasoning of peers is a common occurrence. Additional resources may be found in a companion classroom collection.
Math TopicAlgebraic Thinking, Number Sense, Basic Operations, Number Concepts, Mathematical Practices, Mathematical Processes
Grade Level3, 4, 5
Resource TypeVideo

  • Additional Information
    • AudienceEducator
    • LanguageEnglish (USA)
    • Education TopicTeacher content knowledge, Teaching strategies
    • Interdisciplinary Connection
    • Professional DevelopmentYes
    • ContributorNormandale Community College - Publisher, Minnesota Math and Science Teacher Training Academy - Initiator
    • Publication Date2010-10-21
    • RightsCopyright (c) 2006-2010 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • AccessFree access
  • Standards
    • Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

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  • Related Resources
  • User Comments
    • 5
      levels of justification sophistication
      By hapthorp on 07/12/2014 - 20:39
    • The video and explanations from the PD leaders provide a clear and practical framework for understanding the process and outcomes of justifying or explaining a finding.